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Corriente cattle are a breed of cattle descended from Spanish animals brought to the Americas in the late 15th century. They are primarily used today as sport cattle for rodeo events such as team roping and bulldogging (steer wrestling). Some breeders raise them for their meat, which is significantly leaner than the meat from most modern beef cattle. 

Corriente cattle
are a breed of cattle descended from Spanish animals brought to the Americas in the late 15th century. They are primarily used today as sport cattle for rodeo events such as team roping and bulldogging (steer wrestling). Some breeders raise them for their meat, which is significantly leaner than the meat from most modern beef cattle.

Corrientes are fairly small cattle, with cows averaging well under 1,000 pounds (450 kg). They are lean, athletic, and have long upcurving horns. They are known as "easy keepers," as little human intervention required in their calving, and they eat significantly less than the big beef cattle. Like Texas longhorns (which many[who?] believe to be descended from Corrientes), they require less water and can live on sparse open range. Corrientes are also known as accomplished escape artists, as they can leap a standard barbed-wire fence and squeeze through fairly small openings.

Names for the breed differ. The official breed registry in the United States calls them Corriente cattle, which is the most common term in Northern Mexico. In other parts of Mexico, they are called Criollo or Chinampo cattle. They are closely related to Pineywoods and Florida Cracker cattle, two breeds from the Gulf Coast and Florida.

The Texas longhorn is a hybrid breed resulting from a random mixing of Spanish retinto (criollo) stock and English cattle that Anglo-American frontiersmen brought to Texas from southern and midwestern states in the 1820s and 1830s. "A few old-timers," J. Frank Dobie wrote, "contend that both the horns and bodies of the Texas cattle were derived from importations from the States out of Longhorn Herefords of England," but he was convinced that the Texas longhorn was largely Spanish. Spanish cattle had roamed in Texas probably before the eighteenth century. The old-timers were probably right. Some cattlemen observed that not only the horns and bodies, but also the colors of many Texas longhorns resembled the English Bakewell stock brought from the Ohio valley and Kentucky. Criollo cattle are of solid color ranging from Jersey tan to cherry red. Black animals are few and brindles rare. Spanish and Anglo cattle mixed on a small scale in the 1830s and after, but by the Civil War the half-wild Texas longhorns emerged as a recognizable type. They behaved like Spanish stock but had an appreciable amount of British blood. Old steers (four years old and older) had extremely long horns, and the large number of these animals in postwar trail herds produced the popular misconception that all Texas cattle had unusually long horns. In the 1880s, when younger cattle with improved blood were trailed north, the average horn spread was less than four feet.
In the 1850s Texas longhorns were trailed to markets in New Orleans and California. They developed an immunity to Texas fever, which they carried with them and passed on to herds on the way. In 1861 Missouri and the eastern counties of Kansas banned Texas stock, and during the second half of the nineteenth century many states attempted to enact restrictive laws in an effort to fight the fever. After the Civil War, however, millions of Texas longhorns were driven to market. Herds were driven to Indian and military reservations in New Mexico and Arizona, and in 1867 Illinois cattle dealer Joseph G. McCoy arranged to ship cattle from Abilene, Kansas, to the Union Stockyards in Chicago. Over the next twenty years contractors drove five to ten million cattle out of Texas, commerce that helped revive the state's economy. Longhorns, with their long legs and hard hoofs, were ideal trail cattle; they even gained weight on the way to market.
After the buffalo herds were slaughtered and the Plains Indians confined in the late 1870s, private and syndicate ranches spread northward to the open range and free grass on the Great Plains. Texas longhorns, accompanied by Texas cowboys, stocked most of the new ranches; the trailing era made the cowboy a universal folk hero. The "Big Die-up" of 1886–87, together with the rapid spread of barbed wire fences, brought an abrupt end to the open-range cattle boom and with it the dominance of the longhorn. Fencing made possible controlled breeding, and with the end of free grass it was economically advisable to raise cattle that developed faster than longhorns. By this time ranchers had begun crossing longhorns with shorthorn Durhams and later with Herefords, thus producing excellent beef animals. Longhorns were bred almost out of existence; by the 1920s only a few small herds remained.
In 1927 the Texas longhorn was saved from probable extinction by Will C. Barnes and other Forest Service men, when they collected a small herd of breeding stock in South Texas for the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge in Oklahoma. A few years later J. Frank Dobie, with the help of former range inspector Graves Peeler and financial support from oilman Sid W. Richardson, gathered small herds for Texas state parks. After the wildlife-refuge herd had increased to several hundred, the Forest Service held annual sales of surplus animals. Cowmen at first purchased them as curiosities, then rediscovered the longhorn's longevity, resistance to disease, fertility, ease of calving, and ability to thrive on marginal pastures. Its growing popularity in beef herds was spurred by a diet-conscious population's desire for lean beef.
In 1964 Charles Schreiner III of the YO Ranch took the lead in organizing the Texas Longhorn Breeders Association of America, which maintains a registry in order to perpetuate the breed in a pure state. Since then the number of longhorns and their use in cross-breeding have steadily increased, and their future appears secure. Since 1948 the official state Texas longhorn herd has been kept at Fort Griffin State Historic Site which is now part of the Texas Historical Commission. Smaller longhorn herds were located at Possum Kingdom State Recreation Area, Palo Duro Canyon State Scenic Park, Abilene State Park, Dinosaur Valley State Park, and Copper Breaks State Park.
Will C. Barnes, "Wichita Forest Will Be Lair of Longhorns," The Cattleman, April 1926. J. Frank Dobie, The Longhorns (Boston: Little, Brown, 1941; rpt., Austin: University of Texas Press, 1980). Paul Horn, "Can Longhorns Contribute to the Beef Business?," The Cattleman, September 1972. Dan Kilgore, "Texas Cattle Origins," The Cattleman, January 1983. John E. Rouse, The Criollo: Spanish Cattle in the Americas (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1977). Jimmy M. Skaggs, The Cattle-Trailing Industry: Between Supply and Demand, 1866–1890 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1973). James Westfall Thompson, History of Livestock Raising in the United States, 1607–1860 (Washington: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1942). Don Worcester, The Texas Longhorn: Relic of the Past, Asset for the Future (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1987).
Donald E. Worcester


The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this article.

Donald E. Worcester, "LONGHORN CATTLE," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed July 12, 2013. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

Angus cattle (Aberdeen Angus
are a breed of cattle commonly used in beef production. They were developed from cattle native to the counties of Aberdeenshire and Angus in Scotland,[1] and are known as Aberdeen Angus in most parts of the world.

They are naturally polled (do not have horns) and solid black or red, although the udder may be white. There have always been both red and black individuals in the population,but in the USA they are regarded as two separate breeds — Red Angus and Black Angus. Black Angus is the most common beef breed of cattle in the United States, with 324,266 animals registered in 2005.


For some time before the 1800s, the hornless cattle in Aberdeenshire and Angus were called Angus doddies. Hugh Watson can be considered the founder of the breed; he was instrumental in selecting the best black, polled animals for his herd. His favorite bull was Old Jock, which was born 1842 and sired by Grey-Breasted Jock. Grey-Breasted Jock was given the number "1" in the Scottish Herd Book when it was founded. Another of Watson's notable animals was a cow, Old Granny, which was born in 1824 and said to have lived to 35 years of age and to have produced 29 calves. The pedigrees of the vast majority of Angus cattle alive today can be traced back to these two animals. With the exception of Black Meg 43, more Angus cattle trace back to Old Granny than any other single cow of the breed, and she is considered by some as the founder of the breed.

<h3>United States</h3>

A black Angus cow bellowing on a farm in central Florida

On May 17, 1873, George Grant brought four Angus bulls, but no cows, to Victoria, Kansas. He took the bulls to the fair in Kansas City where they were the topic of much conversation at a time when Shorthorns and Longhorns were the norm. The black hornless animals were often called "freaks" by those who saw them. The bulls were used only in crossbreeding and have no registered progeny today. However, their offspring left a favorable impression on the cattlemen of the time and soon more Angus cattle were imported from Scotland to form purebred herds.

On November 21, 1883, the American Aberdeen Angus Association was founded in Chicago, Illinois, but the organization's name was shortened in the 1950s to the American Angus Association. The Association's first herd book was published on March 1, 1885. At this time both red and black animals were registered without distinction. However, in 1917 the Association barred the registering of red and other colored animals in an effort to promote a solid black breed. Red Angus cattle occur as the result of a recessive gene. Breeders collecting red cattle from black herds began the Red Angus Association of America in 1954. Other countries such as the United Kingdom and Canada still register both colors in the same herd book.

Angus cattle are widely used in crossbreeding to reduce the likelihood of dystocia (difficult calving). They are also used as a genetic dehorner as thepolled gene is passed on as a dominant trait.

During the later part of 2003 and the early part of 2004, the American fast food industry assisted in a public relations campaign to promote the supposedly superior quality of beef produced from Angus cattle (“Angus beef”). Back Yard Burger was the first such large scale product sold in the US, dating back to 2002. Angus burgers are also menu items for chains such as Hardee's and Canadian-based Harvey's. Beginning in 2006, McDonaldsbegan testing hamburgers made with Angus beef at a number of its restaurants in several regions in the US; the company said that customer response to the burgers was positive and began selling the burger at all US locations in July 2009. At the same time, McDonald's Australia also began selling two variants of the burger, the Grand Angus and the Mighty Angus, using Australian-bred Angus, in their outlets.

The American Angus Association set up the "Certified Angus Beef" brand in 1978. The goal of this brand was to promote the idea that Angus beef was of higher quality than beef from other breeds of cattle. Cattle are eligible for "Certified Angus Beef" evaluation if they are at least 51% black and exhibit Angus influence, which include black Simmental cattle and crossbreds. However, they must meet all 10 of the following criteria, which were refined in January 2007 to further enhance product consistency, to be labeled "Certified Angus Beef" by USDA Graders:


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As a freshman in high school, Tommy was given an 18 month old Texas Long Horn cow named Dallie. And Tommy, his mother Dorothy and his father Tom took  Dallie into their family cattle business, a young man’s vision to start producing roping stock began

Tommy started showing animals at the age of 9 years old up until his last year of high school. In his local FFA Chapter, Tommy starting breeding Dallie to produce cattle for him to use and sell as roping stock. As time went on Dallie produced genetics which emphasized fast horn growth and great body size. As of today, Dallie is still with us on the Heart J Ranch enjoying her days as the head of the herd.

In April of 2003 I attended a cousin wedding where I meet my future husband Tommy. A couple of weeks later Tommy took me to his family ranch where I first saw Dallie. I fell in love with her amazing splash of colors and her astonishing horns. .

One day Tommy’s Uncle Charlie came to us and said, your cow herd is increasing and you need your own brand. I want you to have my brand and continue our family’s business. From that day forward we have bought and sold many Texas Long Horn and Corrientes cattle. Today our herd still continues to grow and the family legacy continues on at the Heart J Ranch


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